When a Vitamin C Moisturizer Turns Brown, Is It Bad for Your Skin?

Strawberry dream..... by ArunaR

Submitted via the FutureDerm.com Facebook page:

Would you continue to use your Vitamin C serum if it has turned brown? Skinceuticals says it’s still okay to use it on the package, but if the serum has oxidized, how can it work as an antioxidant? Might it actually be harmful?

-Nanci

Dear Nanci,

At best, using antioxidant creams after they have turned brown is useless. At worst, using such creams is potentially harmful to your skin – but not for the reasons you may think.

Antioxidants work by scavenging loose electrons called free radicals before they can do damage in the system. Vitamin C (as L-ascorbic acid) in particular has been shown to have multiple benefits, including increasing UV protection when applied prior to exposure, and reducing UV damage after exposure (American Academy of Dermatology, 2002). Vitamin C is also essential for the body’s production of collagen. It also lightens skin and increases barrier function when applied topically.

If not stabilized, vitamin C and other antioxidants can become oxidized upon prolonged exposure to light or air, turning brown. Each molecule of vitamin C contains two electrons available for use. When the first is used, the resulting molecule actually becomes more stable than other free radicals and can serve as a free-radical scavenger. After loss of a second electron, the resulting oxidation product, dehydroascorbic acid, can be regenerated or may decay (Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2003).

If twice-oxidized vitamin C (dehydroascorbic acid) is applied topically to the skin, the skin cells will reduce some of the compound back to vitamin C (Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1995). However, some of dehydroascorbic acid will also decay. Chemists know decay has occurred when the molecule’s lactone ring irreversibly opens. I have yet to encounter a study demonstrating application of decayed dehydroascorbic acid has any negative effect.

The rumor pro-oxidant vitamin C becomes damaging to the skin comes from the idea antioxidants absorb free radicals; after a certain point, they must be supersaturated and release free radicals instead. However, when vitamin C absorbs free radicals, it becomes dehydroascorbic acid, and then decays.

Vitamin C has only been shown to act as a pro-oxidant when overdoses are orally ingested in supplement form. Even then, pro-oxidant vitamin C has been shown to have positive effects, helping to create nitric oxide, which relaxes the blood vessels (Cardiovascular Research, 2005).

So, after careful thought and evaluation, I must conclude there is not much evidence to support vitamin C cream causes oxidative damage. I must admit this is a myth I once believed. However, I still do not support the use of “brown” or darkened vitamin C cream, for the following reasons:

  • Decreased concentration of vitamin C. Up to 15% L-ascorbic acid is absorbed by the skin (Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2003). If you apply a 15% L-ascorbic acid solution to your skin, and some has visibly decayed, you are not getting the optimal level of benefit.
  • pH. Vitamin C is best absorbed at an acidic pH. The more active vitamin C in the solution, the more acidic the pH will be. Conversely, the more decayed vitamin C becomes, the more basic the pH will become, the less effect will occur.
So, in answer to your question, Nanci, I would not use my Skinceuticals CE Ferulic after it has turned brown. For this reason, I buy the 5 mL sample size bottles, store them in a cardboard box in my refrigerator, and recap them tightly after each use.

Hope this helps,
Nicki

Photo source:  Strawberry dream….., a photo by ArunaR on Flickr.

Other Posts You Might Enjoy

For more of the latest info in skin care + beauty, FUTUREDERM.COM ON FACEBOOK AND TWITTER!

Related Posts

  • Between worrying about whether my Tupperware container can be microwaved or my plastic water bottle contains BPA, it's a miracle I have any time to eat at all.  (!)  With all of this concern about containers, I recently turned my attention to skin care containers, wondering if they could potentially be harmful as well.  While…
  • FTC Disclosure:  For the purposes of review, I was mailed a sample of Revision Intellishade Tinted Moisturizer. Many make-up artists recommend tinted moisturizers, particularly for older women, as lines and wrinkles tend to look emphasized - "with a firm crease" - after too much product is applied.   Revision Intellishade Tinted Moisturizer claims to offer lightweight and…
  • Vitamin D has been in the media consistently for the past decade, namely because some 70 percent of North American women have been found to have a vitamin D deficiency.  Yet only recently has vitamin D gotten notoriety for its use in topical skin care creams, showing promise for the treatment of acne (though not…

by Nicki Zevola

4 thoughts on “When a Vitamin C Moisturizer Turns Brown, Is It Bad for Your Skin?

  1. Wendy says:

    Hi Nicki-
    My CE Ferulic is always clear to begin with, then turns light yellow, then yellow/orange, then brown. Is it still ok to use while it’s just light yellow or yellow/orange?
    Thanks!
    Wendy

  2. futurederm says:

    Hi Wendy,

    Based on what I know right now, I would say yes. It’s just not as effective as when it’s perfectly clear.

    However, I will definitely update this post if there is ever a published study which directly tests the effects of partially-oxidized vitamin C applied topically to the skin.

    Hope this helps,
    Nicki

  3. Priscilla Barr says:

    Nicki
    Should phloretin CF be perfectly clear too? I just got a bottle in the mail today and it has a light yellow tint to it. I may try to return it

  4. Pingback: Daily Question: Which Skinceuticals Product is Best – CE Ferulic or Phloretin CF? | FutureDerm

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>