Recently, my friend Jessica over at Out in a Pout wanted to know the potential side effects of discontinuing use of hydroquinone. Now, Jessica's a beauty expert herself, so her question really made me ponder just how much the public knows about hydroquinone. So I started avidly researching the topic. Turns out there is so much to know. There are certain amounts of time you should use hydroquinone, there are certain products and ingredients you shouldn't use with hydroquinone (like benzoyl peroxide and resorcinol), you shouldn't get hydroquinone in your eyes, and you shouldn't worry about hydroquinone and cancer. Read more to find out about these:
Hydroquinone works by inhibiting the enzyme tyrosinase, which is important in skin melanin (pigment) development. So for as long as you continue to use hydroquinone, you will inhibit tyrosinase, and hence pigment production. Unfortunately, when you discontinue use of hydroquinone, your skin's natural supply of tyrosinase will no longer be inhibited. Slowly but surely, your skin's natural pigmentation will return.
If you're thinking that you should never stop using hydroquinone, think again: In darker skinned patients, continued hydroquinone use has been associated with ochronosis, a darkening of the skin. It has been proposed this occurs because hydroquinone inhibits homogentisic acid oxidase within the skin, which in turn causes the dark-colored homogentisic acid to build-up within the skin with continued use. Interestingly enough, this phenomenonhas only been documented in darker-skinned patients.
Still, to be on the safe side, most dermatologists recommend using hydroquinone in four-month cycles, alternated in the off months with other milder tyrosinase inhibitors, such as azelaic acid, kojic acid, and arbutin. I personally recommend Cape Fear Naturals Kojic Acid Cream Skin Brightener ($11.95, amazon.com) with 4% kojic acid, the highest concentration available on the U.S. market without a prescription. To be frank, the packaging could use a makeover and the retinol is rendered virtually worthless with full air exposure in the open-top jar container, but the truth of the matter is, no product on the market contains more kojic acid for a lower price. It also works great when alternated for four months with hydroquinone, as mentioned above.
[Read More: Which is Better: Kojic Acid or Hydroquinone?]
Use of hydroquinone with any products containing benzoyl peroxide, hydrogen peroxide, or other peroxides may cause temporary staining of the skin (Drugs.com). This staining is temporary and can typically be removed with soap and water washing, but it's best to avoid benzoyl peroxide-based acne treatments and oxygen-infusing skin care treatments, which typically contain hydrogen peroxide.
Remember that skin darkening I was talking about earlier (ochronosis)? Unfortunately, ochronosis occurrence in people with darker skin combing resorcinol and hydroquinone is well-documented. Hundreds of ochronosis cases have been documented from using resorcinol/hydroquinone combination treatments in South Africa before 1984 (Journal of Dermatological Treatment, 1997). So I definitely would not recommend using hydroquinone with any of the new resorcinol skin lightening treatments, including Clarins Vital Light Serum and philosophy™ Miracle Worker™ Dark Spot Corrector. While I love these products on their own, I would not recommend combining them with any treatments containing hydroquinone, even for those with lighter skin types.
Despite popular belief that hydroquinone may cause cancer, hydroquinone's most serious human health effect is pigmentation of the eye and permanent corneal damage (Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venearology, 2006). While this only occurs when the eye is directly exposed to hydroquinone, it is still a risk factor. It is therefore vitally important to avoid the eye area in applying hydroquinone-based creams.
Some believe that hydroquinone may cause cancer, but this is false. How this rumor arose stems from a study that demonstrated mice exposed to hydroquinone developed liver tumors.
However, these results were reported in a misleading fashion, as dermatological experts explained in a 2006 review in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology: Instead of being harmful to the skin, hydroquinone increased the number of benign (non-cancerous) liver tumors, reducing the proportion of cancerous liver tumors in the mouse, showing a protective effect of hydroquinone. (For you science buffs out there, there was an increase in hepatic adenomas and a decrease in hepatocellular carcinomas).
As for other studies associating mouse kidney tumors with hydroquinone use, it has been argued that these are not relevant to humans. As Dr. David J. Goldberg, a clinical professor of dermatology at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine states, "Over 100 scientific articles confirm hydroquinone is a safe topical for humans; no independent studies prove the opposite."
Of the skin-lightening and age spot-brightening agents out there, 4% hydroquinone is the most effective. Overall, it is considered to be safe, but it's important not to use hydroquinone in conjunction with any creams containing peroxides or resorcinol, to avoid the eye area completely, and to switch off with other agents every four months to lower the risk of ochronosis (skin darkening from the build-up of homogentisic acid). In addition, if you have darker skin, you may wish to speak to your dermatologist first, as ochronosis is much more common in those with darker skin tones. I hope this guide helps you. Please, keep the great questions coming!
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