What does it mean when fingernails develop vertical ridges, and is it cause for concern? Vertical ridges on the fingernails is known as: Onychorrhexis (listen here for pronounciation) n: longitudinal ridging. Since I suffer from onychorrhexis, I decided to investigate where these ridges on my fingernails come from and what can be done about them.
My nails have always peeled, but in 2011, I noticed ridges had developed on my left pinky. Then, in 2012, my left ring finger became afflicted. My research led me to the term “Onychorrhexis," which simply means brittle nails, according to Dr. Joseph Jorizzo, a dermatologist and professor at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, N.C. When nails are brittle, they often split at the ends and have longitudinal or vertical lines. The appearance of longitudinal ridging alone is referred to as onychorrhexis. The appearance of split ends alone is referred to as onychoschisis.
However, many times a patient will have both onychorrhexis and onychoschisis together, making brittle nails a common complaint, according to Dr. Jorizzo. Although a cause for split ends in nails can sometimes be determined, many clients want to know a specific cause for their onychorrhexis when often there isn’t one. Eventually, says Jorizzo, nearly everyone will get onychorrhexis because it’s something that happens with age. “This is not the slightest bit a health issue,” he assured me. When patients come in looking for a solution to longitudinal ridging, Dr. Jorizzo says he’s put in the position of having to find an appropriate way to say it’s because they are getting older. Because onychorrhexis is a natural result of aging, it affects both men and women, and can affect both the fingernails and toenails.
Vertical nail ridges, which extend from the cuticle to the tip of the nail, often become more numerous or prominent with age, possibly due to variations in cell turnover within the nail. As we grow older, the levels of natural oil and moisture in our nail plates go on decreasing so the ridges often become prominent with age. According to Allison Cannon, M.D., “Nail ridging is a common condition that is almost always a normal sign of aging. In many ways it is analogous to wrinkles on your skin. Typically, you may develop vertical ridges from the cuticle to the tip of your nail on one or two fingers, but ridges are likely to occur on all of your nails as you get older. Ridges can appear on someone’s fingers as early as in their 30s, but it is more common to begin when someone is in their 50s or 60s.”
While the most common cause of lines on the nails or onychorrhexis is age, there are times when onychorrhexis is not the result of aging. When this is the case, doctors look for a systemic health problem that is changing the structure of the nails. When the body’s systems are affected, the structure of the nail will also change. These health conditions, or their treatments, can cause a change in the protein make up of the nail, which will result in onychorrhexis. However, it should be noted that these are MUCH less common causes of nail ridges! As Lawrence Gibson, M.D. and Dermatologist at the Mayo Clinic explains, “Vertical nail ridges are fairly common and nothing to worry about.”
Unfortunately, there is no cure for vertical lines on the nails, or onychorrhexis, but the condition isn’t seen as a health concern. As with split ends or dryness in the hair, the condition may be an inconvenience to a client, but it doesn’t pose a health risk. So beware the (multitudes) of bad information on the internet providing cures for fingernail lines and ridges since it doesn't exist! There was a time when gelatin had a reputation of improving nails, but this is based on myth and not sound medical evidence.
Your nails are made from a protein called keratin. When new cells grow, they push out the older cells towards the ends of your fingers, which become hard and tough. When you’re looking at perfect pinkies you should see smooth nails – healthy nails don’t have ridges or grooves. Your nails should be a uniform color, without spots or discolored areas. In reality, our nails don’t always look their best due to everyday wear-and-tear. Nails catch the brunt of our active lifestyle and many nail abnormalities are harmless, perhaps due to an injury or over-use of nail color.
There are a few things that can cause weak nails. Environmental factors play a part. According to 2009 research from the University of Manchester nails are more brittle in conditions of low humidity — the best environment for non-brittle, healthy nails is 55% humidity. Another no-no for healthy nails is smoking — a 2009 study from the St Bartholomew's and The Royal London School of Medicine found smoking strongly increases the likelihood of women developing brittle nails during and after menopause.
That said, there are some things you can do for brittle nails to ensure that your nails look as good as possible and are as healthy as possible. For example:
Even if you implement all of the above ideas for improving your ridges (remember, no cure!), be patient because nails grow at an average rate of 1 mm per week. The matrix extends 4 mm back from the cuticle so it will take four weeks for the matrix to improve, then four more weeks for it to be evident at the base of the nail, and then four more weeks for the nail to show overall signs of improvement. Thus, it can take up to six months for the total nail to be replaced. In the meantime, regular manicure appointments will keep nails looking nice, and be sure to request that your technician uses a ridge filler in place of a base coat (this makes all the difference for me!).
Post by Leah Argento
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