A colourless liquid hydrocarbon. Limonene has been found to be an irritant and a skin sensitizer, which means that it makes you skin more vulnerable to the sun.
Racemic: DL-limonene; Dipentene
|Jmol 3D image||Interactive graph|
|Molar mass||136.24 g·mol−1|
|Appearance||colorless to pale-yellow liquid|
|Melting point||−74.35 °C (−101.83 °F; 198.80 K)|
|Boiling point||176 °C (349 °F; 449 K)|
|Solubility||miscible in alcohol, benzene, chloroform, ether, CS2, and oils
soluble in CCl4
Chiral rotation ([α]D)
|87° - 102°|
Refractive index (nD)
|R-phrases||R10 R38 R43 R50/53|
|S-phrases||(S2) S24 S37 S60 S61|
|Flash point||50 °C (122 °F; 323 K)|
|237 °C (459 °F; 510 K)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Limonene is a colorless liquid hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic terpene. The more common d-isomer possesses a strong smell of oranges. It is used in chemical synthesis as a precursor to carvone and as a renewables-based solvent in cleaning products.
Limonene takes its name from the lemon, as the rind of the lemon, like other citrus fruits, contains considerable amounts of this compound, which contributes to their odor. Limonene is a chiral molecule, and biological sources produce one enantiomer: the principal industrial source, citrus fruit, contains d-limonene ((+)-limonene), which is the (R)-enantiomer. Racemic limonene is known as dipentene. d-Limonene is obtained commercially from citrus fruits through two primary methods: centrifugal separation or steam distillation.