Urea

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An excellent natural moisturizing factor that improves skin barrier function. It binds water to the skin and promotes the production of keratin.

Urea (Wikipedia)
Urea
Structural formula of urea
Ball-and-stick model of the urea molecule
Space-filling model of the urea molecule
Sample of Urea.jpg
Names
IUPAC name
Urea
Other names
Carbamide, carbonyl diamide, carbonyldiamine, diaminomethanal, diaminomethanone
Identifiers
57-13-6 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:16199 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL985 YesY
ChemSpider 1143 YesY
DrugBank DB03904 N
4539
Jmol 3D image Interactive graph
KEGG D00023 YesY
PubChem 1176
RTECS number YR6250000
UNII 8W8T17847W YesY
Properties
CH4N2O
Molar mass 60.06 g·mol−1
Appearance White solid
Density 1.32 g/cm3
Melting point 133 to 135 °C (271 to 275 °F; 406 to 408 K)
1079 g/L (20 °C)
1670 g/L (40 °C)
2510 g/L (60 °C)
4000 g/L (80 °C)
Solubility 500 g/L glycerol, 50g/L ethanol
Basicity (pKb) pKBH+ = 0.18
Structure
4.56 D
Pharmacology
B05BC02 (WHO) D02AE01
Hazards
Safety data sheet JT Baker
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
8500 mg/kg (oral, rat)
Related compounds
Related ureas
Thiourea
Hydroxycarbamide
Related compounds
Carbamide peroxide
Urea phosphate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Urea (/juːˈrə/) or carbamide (from the Greek word Ουρία) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CO(NH2)2. The molecule has two —NH2 groups joined by a carbonyl (C=O) functional group.

Urea serves an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds by animals, and is the main nitrogen-containing substance in the urine of mammals. It is a colorless, odorless solid, highly soluble in water, and practically non-toxic (LD50 is 15 g/kg for rats). Dissolved in water, it is neither acidic nor alkaline. The body uses it in many processes, most notably nitrogen excretion. The liver forms it by combining two ammonia molecules (NH3) with a carbon dioxide (CO2) molecule in the urea cycle. Urea is widely used in fertilizers as a source of nitrogen and is an important raw material for the chemical industry.

Friedrich Wöhler's discovery in 1828 that urea can be produced from inorganic starting materials was an important conceptual milestone in chemistry. It showed for the first time that a substance previously known only as a byproduct of life could be synthesized in the laboratory without biological starting materials, contradicting the widely held doctrine of vitalism.

It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.

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