Vitamin C

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Vitamin C is a necessary nutrient for the human body (in food). Topically, it is a strong antioxident and a key ingredient in our FutureDerm Vitamin CE Eye Cream!

Vitamin C (Wikipedia)
This article is about ascorbic acid as a nutrient. For its chemical properties, see ascorbic acid. For other uses, see Vitamin C (disambiguation). For the 'C-level' title, see List of corporate titles.
Vitamin C
L-Ascorbic acid.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-((S)- 1,2-dihydroxyethyl)furan-2(5H)-one
Clinical data
AHFS/ Multum Consumer Information
MedlinePlus a682583
  • A (to RDA), C (above RDA)
Routes of
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: Unscheduled
  • US: OTC
  • general public availability
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability rapid & complete
Protein binding negligible
Biological half-life varies according to plasma concentration
Excretion renal
CAS Number 50-81-7 YesY
ATC code A11G (WHO)
PubChem CID 5785
DrugBank DB00126 YesY
ChemSpider 10189562 YesY
KEGG D00018 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:29073 YesY
NIAID ChemDB 002072
Synonyms L-ascorbic acid
Chemical data
Formula C6H8O6
Molar mass 176.12 g/mol
Physical data
Density 1.694 g/cm3
Melting point 190 °C (374 °F)
Boiling point 553 °C (1,027 °F)

Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid, or simply ascorbate (the anion of ascorbic acid), is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species. Vitamin C describes several vitamers that have vitamin C activity in animals, including ascorbic acid and its salts, and some oxidized forms of the molecule like dehydroascorbic acid. Ascorbate and ascorbic acid are both naturally present in the body when either of these is introduced into cells, since the forms interconvert according to pH.

Vitamin C is a cofactor in at least eight enzymatic reactions, including several collagen synthesis reactions that, when dysfunctional, cause the most severe symptoms of scurvy. In animals, these reactions are especially important in wound-healing and in preventing bleeding from capillaries. Ascorbate may also act as an antioxidant, protecting against oxidative stress.

Ascorbate (the anion of ascorbic acid) is required for a range of essential metabolic reactions in all animals and plants. It is made internally by almost all organisms; the main exceptions are most bats, all guinea pigs, capybaras, and the Haplorrhini (one of the two major primate suborders, consisting of tarsiers, monkeys, and humans and other apes). Ascorbate is also not synthesized by some species of birds and fish. All species that do not synthesize ascorbate require it in the diet. Deficiency in this vitamin causes the disease scurvy in humans.

Ascorbic acid is also widely used as a food additive, to prevent oxidation.

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