Vitamin C

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Vitamin C is a necessary nutrient for the human body (in food). Topically, it is a strong antioxident and a key ingredient in our FutureDerm Vitamin CE Eye Cream!

Vitamin C (Wikipedia)
This article is about ascorbic acid as a nutrient. For its chemical properties, see ascorbic acid. For other uses, see Vitamin C (disambiguation). For the 'C-level' title, see List of corporate titles.
Vitamin C
L-Ascorbic acid.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-((S)- 1,2-dihydroxyethyl)furan-2(5H)-one
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.comMultum Consumer Information
  • A (to RDA), C (above RDA)
Routes of
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: Unscheduled
  • US: OTC
  • general public availability
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailabilityrapid & complete
Protein bindingnegligible
Biological half-lifevaries according to plasma concentration
CAS Number50-81-7 YesY
ATC codeA11G (WHO)
PubChemCID 5785
DrugBankDB00126 YesY
ChemSpider10189562 YesY
KEGGD00018 YesY
NIAID ChemDB002072
SynonymsL-ascorbic acid
Chemical data
Molar mass176.12 g/mol
Physical data
Density1.694 g/cm3
Melting point190 °C (374 °F)
Boiling point553 °C (1,027 °F)

Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid, or simply ascorbate (the anion of ascorbic acid), is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species. Vitamin C describes several vitamers that have vitamin C activity in animals, including ascorbic acid and its salts, and some oxidized forms of the molecule like dehydroascorbic acid. Ascorbate and ascorbic acid are both naturally present in the body when either of these is introduced into cells, since the forms interconvert according to pH.

Vitamin C is a cofactor in at least eight enzymatic reactions, including several collagen synthesis reactions that, when dysfunctional, cause the most severe symptoms of scurvy. In animals, these reactions are especially important in wound-healing and in preventing bleeding from capillaries. Ascorbate may also act as an antioxidant, protecting against oxidative stress.

Ascorbate (the anion of ascorbic acid) is required for a range of essential metabolic reactions in all animals and plants. It is made internally by almost all organisms; the main exceptions are most bats, all guinea pigs, capybaras, and the Haplorrhini (one of the two major primate suborders, consisting of tarsiers, monkeys, and humans and other apes). Ascorbate is also not synthesized by some species of birds and fish. All species that do not synthesize ascorbate require it in the diet. Deficiency in this vitamin causes the disease scurvy in humans.

Ascorbic acid is also widely used as a food additive, to prevent oxidation.

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